Angelica Kauffmann - Ritratto di fanciullo in veste di Bacco

No Longer a Terra Incognita in American Collections

“Those new regions [America] which we found and explored with the fleet…we may rightly call a New World.” Amerigo Vespucci, letter to Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de’ Medici, 1503

Since the end of the 19th century and early decades of the 20th, Americans, both private individuals and public institutions, have been avid collectors of Italian paintings and drawings. The general enthusiasm for Italian art tended to cease, however, with the two Tiepolo, Canaletto, and the elder Guardi, together with Piazzetta and Piranesi, who were viewed as the coda to the grand tradition of Italian art. Occasionally, works by other figures like Cades, Ubaldo and Gaetano Gandolfi, and Bison were used to illustrate the denouement of the Italian school.
By and large Americans considered Italian artists operative between 1790 and 1910, if they focused on them at all, the poor cousins of their American, English, and French contemporaries. On the other side of the great divide, the Futurists and Balla as a Futurist and not a Divisionist, were enthusiastically collected. Their popularity most likely stemmed from their avant garde aesthetic linked to Cubism and the controversial 1913 Armory Show (International Exhibition of Contemporary Art) in New York City, despite the fact that the Futurists ironically were omitted from this seminal exhibition. There are, of course, other  exceptions to the prevailing rule, such as Morandi, whose works American have always prized. Nevertheless, earlier in the 20th century, American interest in Italian art bracketed, like book ends, the period represented by the classicizing and academic examples in this exhibit at the Galleria Carlo Virgilio.
Naturally, there are exceptions to this generalization, and one could point to incidental jewels or sporadic caches of works in American collections. But even these were under appreciated. It was during the 1950s that scholars, collectors, and museum personnel began to explore this terra incognita more fully. The result is that today American collecting of Italian art no longer stops with Mauro Gandolfi and jump starts with Balla.

It is no wonder that the art of the period in question was not more accessible to Americans.  In post-Napoleonic times, the Italic peninsula was again divided regionally, fraught with political instability lasting until after Italy’s unification as a country in 1870. Works by most Italian artists remained in regional contexts, widely unknown on the international art scene. Further, many artists were engaged in Risorgimento struggles to the detriment of their artistic careers. Few traveled, although there were exceptions like Costa, an impassioned patriot and revolutionary macchiaolo, who from mid-century encouraged an open door policy and worked closely with English artists in the Roman Compagna, later traveling to Paris and London where he continued to exhibit. Costa also campaigned for the artistic renewal of Rome, which despite political upheaval was an exciting artistic center until Paris usurped its position in mid-century. In the wake of the Grand Tour phenomenon, Rome had remained a place stimulated by international exchanges intimated in the works of foreign artists. It was a veritable melting pot where Ingres and Wicar worked alongside Palagi, Tischbein, and Angelica Kauffmann to reveal the importance of the academically trained artist who formed the backbone of artistic production in Italy. Again at end of the century, after unification and with the emphasis on “Roma capitale”, Rome became a Mecca for artists. A case in point is Vedder, who settled permanently in the Eternal City in 1867, dying there in 1912. His fin de siècle blend of Symbolism, “Liberty” style, and mysticism is claimed by Americans and Italians alike.

Giovanni Piancastelli – a painter who attended the Accademia di San Luca and who was in the service of the Borghese family, becoming Director of the Museo and the Galleria Borghese when the collection was acquired by the state in 1899 – played a critical role in the dissemination of Italian drawings of this period in the United States. Although he amassed a vast compilation of Italian drawings from every period, he was an avid collector of the epoch in question. The fate of his collection, some of which remains in Italy (i.e., in Forl), occupied a pivotal place in the history of American collecting.

Other early exceptions to the rule about Americans not collecting Italian art of this period were the Hewitt sisters, Sarah and Eleanor, of New York City. Through their agent, the novelist E. Marion Campbell, they purchased approximately 3,620 drawings from Piancastelli in 1901, selecting those most suitable for the museum of decorative arts and architecture which they planned (the Cooper-Hewitt Museum). One of the large blocks of drawings they acquired were the c. 1,000 sheets by the wonderfully inventive artist Giani and members of his circle.

Another American collector linked to Piancastelli was Mary Brandegee, who together with her husband Edward D. Brandegee of Brookline, Massachusetts, purchased around 8,663 drawings in 1904. They acquired those which the Hewitts did not deem appropriate to their mission. In 1938 the Brandegee estate offered the Cooper-Hewitt the option to acquire the majority of its holdings (c. 8,200 sheets) in order to reunite the Piancastelli Collection.
This group of approximately 12,457 drawings now forms the nucleus of the drawing collection of The Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution in New York. Nonetheless, the famous MB collectors mark is encountered on large numbers of drawings in other collections, such as Bibiena sheets formerly belonging to Janos Scholz, and other works still in circulation on the market.

Scholz, another American (Hungarian by birth) who collected this period, is thought to have owned at least 1,000 drawings with a Brandegee provenance gathered during the middle decades of the Novecento. His interest in the period sprang from his enthusiasm for Settecento Italian drawing and an insatiable interest and curiosity in expanding his horizons.
Representing a logical progression in taste, neoclassical Italian art, abutting the late Settecento, was the first segment to be unanimously embraced by scholars, collectors, and the public at large. Its firm acceptance into the canon of collecting resulted from several exhibitions in the 1960s and 1970s that stressed the international character of Neoclassicism, as seen in works by Tofanelli and Kauffmann.

Nearly all Americans who have collected Italian art of the period have fallen under the spell of Italy, especially that of Rome with its history and archaeology, its mythology and literature, and its endless beauty and intellectual treasures. During the 1950s much of the collecting activity stemmed from a group of scholars and museum people who were centered at the American Academy in Rome. One of the most influential figures was Anthony M. Clark, who first at the Rhode Island School of Design, then at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, and later at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, pushed the boundaries of collecting further into the 19th century, acquiring capolavori for his institutions and illuminating works for his own collection. John Maxon of the Art Institute of Chicago was another individual who used the late 18th-century as a diving board to enter the waters of the subsequent century for his institution and his own collection.

In turn, these individuals encouraged other collectors, scholars, and students toward a later taste. Like dropping a pebble into a pool, their enthusiasm spread to their acquaintances in ever widening circles. For example, Frederick Cummings, as director of the Detroit Institute of Art and as a private individual, made pioneering acquisitions. Museum organized exhibitions and published catalogues in English on the era during the 1970s, 1980s (one addressing drawings of the period opened at the National Gallery of Art and another on the Macchiaioli was held at U.C.L.A.), and 1990s (one on Italian painting began at the Walters Art Museum), continuing to open up the field for U.S. collectors. To date, there have been few monographic exhibitions, although the Stanford University Museum of Art organized one on Duranti in 1975, and commercial galleries have mounted a handful, such as on Sartorio (1970), Hirémy-Hirshl (1984), and Gemito (2000).

Scratch the surface of the history of U.S. collecting, and it would be apparent that museums and private collectors had acquired works from the period since the latter 19th century, long before 1950. Only a few artists were collected consistently, such as Pinelli, the illustrator and inveterate chronicler of Roman life. One encounters examples by Pinelli everywhere, for example in a group of early preparatory drawings in the E.B. Crocker Museum in Sacramento, acquired in 1871. Many travelers to Italy purchased works that reminded them of their travels. A case in point is Catherine Lorillard Wolfe, who in 1887 donated several of these watercolours to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, while a large group of vedute and travel-oriented works are in The George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum. Before the 1920s, William F.E. Gurley and Leonora Hall Gurley of Chicago collected late 18th-century Italian art, while in the 1960s Mrs. George B. Young also gave drawings to Art Institute of Chicago. Frank Jewett Mather donated others to The Art Museum, Princeton University. A survey of American institutions reveals Ottocento works throughout the country, from Boston and Baltimore (notably the Robert Gilmor Collection) to Dayton and San Francisco (a stunning oil sketch by Favretto, acquired in the 1950s). In addition, many collections generally rich in 19th-century art, like the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute or The Brooklyn Museum, by extension also own Italian examples from the era. In addition, museums connected with academically oriented art schools, like RISD and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Arts, should be mentioned. Prior to the 1950s, however, many of these acquisitions were gifts or bequests, and in general these holdings can be best characterized as “episodic.”

Among the 20th-century private collectors in the vanguard of this interest are several singular categories of individuals who did not just extend their interest in Settecento art. The first is comprised of Italo-Americans who maintained connections with their Italian heritage via art. A noteworthy case is the heir of a family who once owned hundreds of works by Minardi. Equally fascinating are the descendants of Arturo Toscanini who possess works of art, most from the last half of the Ottocento, which once belonged to the famous conductor. The second category includes collectors, like Benjamin Sonnenberg, who purchased works by Ottocento artists who are associated with other schools, such as Boldini, a figure long included in the de rigeurer list to own due to his lengthy Parisian career.

Currently, a group of living collectors are seriously acquiring Italian art of the period. Some focus only on 18th-century and neoclassical art; the majority collect art of some part of the period under consideraton from various schools. Yet few collectors still single out the Italian school of this period with the goal of gathering fine examples by all available artists.
Institutions, dependent on curator taste and mission, are now actively acquiring major Ottocento works by purchase rather than primarily by gift, resulting in a feeling that the period is coming of age. In recent decades Jacob Bean of the Metropolitan Museum of Art branched into the early Ottocento. The constellation of museums making acquisitions in the area includes the National Gallery of Art and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the recipients of Clark’s private collection. Recently, the J. Paul Getty Museum acquired in auction the pastel of 1877 by Michetti inscribed “Scherzo,” while the Yale Art Museum purchased a large neoclassical sheet by Pinelli. A more specifically oriented acquisition is the large historical drawing of Cincinnatus funded by the Cincinnatus Society for the Cincinnati Museum of Art. Nevertheless, donors continue to offer works by Italian nineteenth-century artists to museums in greater numbers, such as in the bequest of Bernice Davidson to the Fogg Art Museum.

These impressionistic comments only begin to suggest the complex paths taken by American collectors who are continuing to discover this new world of Italian art.

di Roberta J. M. Olson


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G. M. Ackerman
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Angeli 1914
D. Angeli
in XI Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte della città di Venezia
Venezia, 1914

Angeli 1930
D. Angeli
Cronache del Caffè greco
Milano, 1930

Baumgärtel 1998
Angelika Kauffmann
catalogo della mostra di Düsseldorf a cura di B. Baumgärtel
Ostfildern/Ruit, 1998

Beaucamp 1939
F. Beaucamp
Le peintre lillois Jean-Baptiste Wicar (1762-1834). Son oeuvre et son temps
Lille, 1939

Benzi 1986
F. Benzi
L’attività pittorica in Bertoni
1986 – pp.123-142

Bernini Pezzini 1988
G. Bernini Pezzini, Max Roeder
in Gruppo Romano Incisori Artisti 1921, catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1988 – pp. 104-107

Bertini Calosso 1933
Mostra delle pitture di Giulio Aristide Sartorio nella Regia Galleria Borghese
catalogo della mostra a cura di A.Bertini Calosso
Roma, 1933

Bertoni 1986
Ercole Drei scultore. 1886-1973
catalogo della mostra di Faenza a cura di F.Bertoni
Imola, 1986

Bistolfi 1913
G. Bistolfi
Il poeta dell’ombra dorata
in “Noi e il mondo” III
1913 – 1, p. 56-60.

Bezzuoli 1855
Della vita e delle opere del professore Cav. Giuseppe Bezzuoli (…). Memorie raccolte da alcuni scolari e amici
Firenze, 1855

Boase 1947
T. S. R. Boase
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Bock 1986
Ein Bildnis von Prinz Heinrich Lubromirski al Genius des Ruhmes von Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
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1986 – n.XXIII, p. 85.

Boisclair 1986
M. N. Boisclair
Gaspard Dughet. Sa vie et son œvre (1615-1675)
Paris, 1986

Breda 1994
L’opera pittorica di Giovan Battista Crema. Contributo alla definizione di un catalogo generale
prefazione di L.Scardino, note biografiche di S.Crema
Roma, 1994

Caira Lumetti 1990
R. Caira Lumetti
La cultura dei Lumi tra Italia e Svezia. Il ruolo di Francesco Piranesi
Roma, 1990

[Cantù] 1838
Le glorie delle belle arti esposte nel Palazzo di Brera in Milano nell’anno MDCCCXXXVIII¸ A.XII 1838
Milano, 1838

Cataldi Villari 1987
Giulio Aristide Sartorio. Immagini dell’Agro Pontino
catalogo della mostra a cura di F.Cataldi Villari
Roma, 1987

Centi 1982
Palazzo Brancaccio Inizio di una ricognizione: i materiali dell’Archivio Capitolino e dello studio Gai, catalogo della mostra a cura di G. Centi
Roma, 1982

Ceschi 1963
C. Ceschi
Le chiese di Roma dagli inizi del neoclassicismo al 1961
Bologna, 1963

Ciardi 1989
R. P. Ciardi, Bernardino Nocchi
Recensir col tratto
Disegni di Bernardino e Pietro Nocchi, catalogo della mostra a cura di R.P.Ciardi e A.Tosi
Lucca, 1989 – pp.9-40

Cipriani 1980
Schede, in Giulio Aristide Sartorio (1860-1932)
catalogo della mostra a cura di A.A.V.V.
Roma, 1980

Clark 1981
A. M. Clark
Studies in Roman Eighteenth-Century Painting, selected and edited by E.P.Bowron
Washington, 1981

Cohn 1968
M. B. Cohn
Profile Portrait of Guillaume Guillon Lethière by J.A.D.Ingres, in Fogg Art Museum Acquisitions 1966-67
Cambridge, 1968 – pp.54-59

Copenaghen 1970
Statens Museum for Kunst. Ældre Malerkunst Katalog (Royal Museum of Fine Arts. Old Danish Paintings Catalogue)
København, 1970

Crispolti – Drudi Gambillo 1963
Giacomo Balla
catalogo della mostra di Torino a cura di E.Crispolti e M.Drudi Gambillo
Torino, 1963

Dal Mas
G. Dal Mas
Giovanni De Min. 1786-1859
Belluno 1992

Dal Mas 1999
G. Dal Mas
Pietro Paoletti. 1801-1847
Belluno 1999

Dania 1984
Fortunato Duranti, catalogo della mostra di San Severino Marche a cura di L.Dania
Milano 1984

Domestici 1999
Renato Tomassi the painter der Maler (1884-1972), catalogo mostra a cura di F. Domestici e F. Tomassi
Firenze 1999

Donfrancesco 1986
B. Donfrancesco
Il fornaciaio-Eleuterio Riccardi scultore
Colfelice 1986

Dufay 1844
Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de Wicar
Lille 1844

Durno 1963/64
Durno James
in The Dictionary of National Biography, Vol.VI
Oxford 1963/64, p.266

Eleuteri 1986
E. M. Eleuteri, Renato Tomassi
Galleria d’Arte Eleuteri
Roma, 1986

Fagiolo 1968
Balla prefuturista
a cura di M. Fagiolo, Galleria L’Obelisco
Roma, 1968

Fagiolo dell’Arco 1998
Giacomo Balla 1895-1911. Verso il Futurismo, catalogo della mostra di Padova
a cura di M. Fagiolo dell’Arco
Venezia, 1998

Ficacci 2000
L. Ficacci
Giovanni Battista Piranesi. The Complete Etchings
Köln, 2000

Finarte 2000
Mobili, arredi e dipinti antichi da una casa romana
catalogo Asta Finarte
Roma, 25 ottobre 2000

Fiori 1969
Archivi del Divisionismo
a cura di T. Fiori, vol.II
Roma, 1969

Firenze 1896
Festa dell’Arte e dei Fiori. Catalogo della Esposizione di Belle Arti
Firenze, 1896

Fischel 1903
O. Fischel
Ludwig von Hoffmann
Leipzig, 1903

Fonti 1981
D. Fanti
Elihu Vedder, in Schede 1981. Galleria Carlo Virgilio
Roma, 1981 – pp. 75-79

Franke 1993
M. Franke
Johann Friedrich August Tischbein
tesi di dottorato

Friedman 1976
W. H. Friedman
Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery
New York-London, 1976

Fuss 1970
M. Fuss
Carl Ludwig Frommel 1789-1863: Maler und Kupferstecher
in Badische Heimat
1970 – pp. 95-100

Gaehtgens-Lugand 1988
T. Gaehtgens-J. Lugand
Joseph-Marie Vien Peintre du Roi (1716-1809)
Paris, 1988

Gai 1963
Francesco Gai artista romano
Roma, 1963

Garms 1972
J. Garms
Othmar Brioschi, in Artisti austriaci a Roma dal Barocco alla Secessione, catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1972 – nn.37-41

Garms 1981-82
J. Garms
Introduzione ad Adolf Hirémy Hirschl, in Adolf Hirémy Hirschl (Temesvar 1860 – Roma 1933). Disegni, Acquerelli e Pastelli
Roma, Galleria Carlo Virgilio – 1981-82

Gasparoni 1865
F. Gasparoni
Di alcuni affreschi di Guido Guidi, in Arti e Lettere II
1865 – p. 373

Gentilini 1989
Attraverso lo specchio. Giulio Bargellini, la fotografia, il simbolismo, in L’Artista 1
1989 – pp. 154-67

“Giornale delle Belle Arti” 1787
in “Giornale delle Belle Arti”, vol. IV, p. 136

Giovannelli 1985
R. Giovannelli
Nuovi contributi per Bernardino Nocchi
in Labyrinthos, nn.7-8 1985, pp.119-199

Giovannelli 1992/93
R. Giovannelli
Per Stefano Tofanelli
in Labyrinthos, nn.21-24 1992/93, pp.393-430

Giovannelli 1994
R. Giovannelli
Tofanelli: Morgen Leonardo
in Labyrinthos, nn.25-26 1994, pp.197-230

Gnisci 1990
S. Gnisci
Agricola Filippo, in La pittura in italia. L’Ottocento
a cura di E.Castelnuovo
Milano, 1991 – vol. II, pp. 658-659

Gnisci 1990(1)
S. Gnisci
Guido Guidi, in La pittura in italia. L’Ottocento
a cura di E.Castelnuovo
Milano, 1991 – vol. II, p. 865

Gnisci 1990(2)
Monti Virginio, in La pittura in italia. L’Ottocento
a cura di E. Castelnuovo
Milano, 1991 – vol. II, p.926

Gozzoli-Mazzocca 1983
catalogo della mostra a cura di M.C.Gozzoli e F.Mazzocca
Milano, 1983

Guerrazzi Costa 1983
G. Guerrazzi Costa (a cura di)
Quel che vidi e quel che intesi di Nino Costa
introduzione di M.Apolloni
Roma, 1983

Gunn 1991
A. Gunn
Guy Head’s Venus and Juno
in The Burlington Magazine, CXXXIII 1991, 1061, pp.510-513.

Guthmann 1903
J. Guthmann
Über Otto Greiner
Leipzig, 1903

Hartwig 1996
M. Hartwig
Brioschi Othmar, in Saur Allgemeines Künstler-lexikon
München-Leipzig, 1996 – vol. 14, p. 249

Haskell 1985
F. Haskell
Mecenati e pittori. Studio sui rapporti tra arte e società italiana nell’età barocca
Firenze, 1985

Hermanin 1910
F. Hermanin
Artisti moderni: Max Roeder, in La Nuova Antologia
16 ottobre 1910 – fasc. 932, pp. 529-535

Hermanin 1912
F. Hermanin
Max Roeder. Mit 1 Originalradierung und 2 Abbildungen
in Zeitschrift für Bibldende Kunst, XXIII
1912 – p. 309 ss.

Hermanin 1923
F. Hermanin
Renato Tomassi
catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1923

Hoberg 1988
Ludwig von Hoffmann, in I Deutsch-Römer. Il mito dell’Italia negli artisti tedeschi, 1850 – 1900
catalogo della mostra di Roma a cura di C. Heilmann
Milano-Roma, 1988

Hodkinson 1952/54
T. Hodkinson
Christopher Hewetson, an Irish Sculptor in Rome
in The Walpole Society
1952-54 – vol.XXXIV, pp.42-54

Honour 1959
H. Honour
Antonio Canova and the Anglo-Romans. Part I: the first visit to Rome
in The Connoisseur
1959 – pp.241-245

Honour 1993
H. Honour
Torino, 1993 (3a edizione in traduzione italiana)

Ingamells 1997
A dictionary of British and Irish Travellers in Italy 1701-1800
New Haven-London, 1997

Kashey 1992
Ludwig von Hofmann 1861-1945. Drawings, watercolors, pastels, prints
catalogo della mostra a cura di E.Kashey, Sheperd Gallery
New York, 1992

Lazzareschi 1930
La villa Mansi a Segromigno e le pitture di Stefano Tofanelli
in Bollettino Storico Lucchese, A.II
1930, pp.196-219

Lefort 1878
Exposition Universelle. Les Ecoles étrangères de Peinture
in Gazette des beaux arts, XVIII
1878, p.398-409

Leonardo 1995
Trattato della pittura
a cura di E.Camesasca
Milano, 1995

Lille 1984
Le Chevalier Wicar peintre, dessinateur et collectioneur lillois
catalogo della mostra
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Maltese 1956
La formazione culturale di Vincenzo Gemito e i suoi rapporti con il Caravaggio
in Colloqui del Sodalizio, II
1956 – pp.41-45.

Maltese 1992
Storia dell’Arte in Italia 1785-1943
Torino, 1992 (1a: 1960)

Mazzocca 1990
La pittura dell’Ottocento in Lombardia
in La pittura in Italia. L’Ottocento, a cura di E.Castelnuovo
Milano, 1990 – vol.I pp.87-155

Mazzocca 1992
Giacomo Trécourt
in A.A.V.V., I pittori bergamaschi dell’Ottocento. Vol. I. Il primo Romanticismo. L’Accademia
Bergamo, 1992 – pp.445-481

Meyer 1816
Darstellung aus Nord – Deutschland
Hamburg, 1816

Milano 1838
Esposizione delle opere degli artisti e dei dilettanti nelle Gallerie dell’I.R. Accademia delle Belle Arti per l’anno 1838
Milano, 1838

Minardi 1834
Delle qualità essenziali della pittura italiana dal suo rinascimento fino all’epoca della perfezione
in Susinno
1982 – pp.49-59

Miraglia 1981
Note per una storia della fotografia italiana (1839-1911), in Storia dell’arte italiana. IX. Grafica e immagine. II. Illustrazione e fotografia
Torino, 1981

Monrad 1984
Danish Painting. The Golden Age, catalogo della mostra a cura di K.Monrad
London, 1984

Naef 1977
Die Bildniszeichnungen von J.-A.-D.Ingres, T.IV
Bern, 1977

Ovidi 1902
E. Ovidi
Tommaso Minardi e la sua scuola
Roma, 1902

Pinto 1972
Sfortuna dell’Accademia. Cultura neoclassica e romantica nella Toscana Granducale. Collezioni lorenesi, acquisizioni posteriori, depositi
catalogo della mostra a cura di S.Pinto
Firenze, 1972

Pinto 1982
La promozione delle arti negli Stati italiani dall’età delle riforme all’Unità
in Storia dell’arte italiana. Settecento e Ottocento, VI
Torino, 1982 – pp.791-1079

Poppi 1996
Pelagio Palagi pittore. Dipinti dalle Raccolte del Comune di Bologna
catalogo della mostra di Bologna a cura di C.Poppi
Milano, 1996

Pressly 1982
Guy Head and his ‘Echo Flying from Narcissus’. A British Artist in Rome in 1790’s
in Bulletin of The Detroit Institute of Arts
1982 – 60, 3-4, pp.69-79

Rafael Valls Gallery 2001
2001 Recent acquisitions, Rafael Valls Limiter Old Master Paintings
London, 2001 – n. 32

Rolfi-Stefani 1999
S.Rolfi-C.Stefani (a cura di )
Quadreria. Dipinti ed acquarelli dal XVIII al XX secolo
Galleria Carlo Virgilio
Roma, 1999

Roma 1932
Mostra di Roma nell’Ottocento
catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1932

Roma 1933
Mostra di pitture di Giulio Aristide Sartorio nella Galleria Borghese
catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1933

Roma 1959
Il Settecento a Roma, catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1959

Roma 1961
Giulio Aristide Sartorio nel centenario della nascita
catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1961

Roma 1972-73
X Quadriennale d’Arte
catalogo della mostra
Roma, 1972-73

Roma 1980
Vedute mediterranee di Johann Jakob Frey (Basilea 1813 – Roma 1865). Disegni ed acquarelli
con saggio introduttivo di L.Norci Cagiano de Azevedo
Galleria Carlo Virgilio
Roma, 1980

Roma 1982
Da Antonio Canova a Medardo Rosso. Disegni di scultori italiani del XIX secolo
catalogo della mostra a cura di G.Piantoni
Roma, 1982

Roma 1987
Secessione romana 1913-1916
catalogo della mostra a cura di R.Bossaglia, M.Quesada, P.Spadini
Roma, 1987

Roma 1990
Roma anni venti. Pittura, scultura, arti applicate
catalogo della mostra a cura di Guttry, M.Fagiolo dell’Arco, M.P.Maino, M.Quesada, V.Rivosecchi, A.Trombadori
Roma, 1990

Rudolph 1985
Il punto su Bernardino Nocchi
in Labyrinthos, nn.7-8
1985 – pp.200-231

Rudolph 2000
Stefano Tofanelli, in Art in Rome in the Eighteenth Century
catalogo della mostra di Philadelphia e Houston a cura di E.P.Bowron e J.J.Rishel
Philadelphia, 2000

Savonuzzi 1971
Ottocento ferrarese
Ferrara, 1971

Sbrilli 1985
Paesaggi del Nord. L’idea del paesaggio nella pittura tedesca del primo Ottocento
Roma, 1985

Scardino 1993
Giovan Battista Crema (1883-1964)
catalogo della mostra di Bondeno a cura di L.Scardino
Ferrara, 1993

Scutellari 1893
G. Scutellari
Cenni biografici intorno ai pittori scultori ed architetti ferraresi dal 1750 fino ai giorni nostri per far seguito alle Vite del Baruffali
Atti della Deputazione ferrarese di Storia patria, vol.V
Ferrara, 1893

Serra 1914
Giulio Aristide Sartorio pittore animalista
Torino, 1914

Singer 1912
Zeichnungen von Otto Greiner
herausgegeben von Professor Dr.Hans W.Singer
Leipzig, 1912

Sisi 1987
Gabinetto disegni e stampe degli Uffizi. LXIX. Disegni dell’Ottocento dalla collezione Batelli
a cura di C.Sisi
Firenze, 1987

Sisi-Spalletti 1994
C.Sisi – E.Spalletti
La cultura artistica a Siena nell’Ottocento
Siena, 1994

Soria 1970
Elihu Vedder, american visionary artist in Rome
Rutheford, 1970

Spadini 1973
Giulio Aristide Sartorio
catalogo della mostra
Galleria Emporio Floreale
Roma, 1973

Spadini 1982
Opere inedite di Giulio Bargellini: oli – pastelli – carboncini – studi di architetture e progetti per mosaici dal 1890 al 1936
Galleria dell’Emporio Floreale
Roma, 1982

Spalletti 1989
Qualche riflessione sugli inizi romantici di Giuseppe Bezzuoli
in Artista
1989 – pp. 140-153

Spalletti 1990
La pittura dell’Ottocento in Toscana, in La pittura in Italia. L’Ottocento
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Susinno 1982
Disegni di Tommaso Minardi (1787-1871)
catalogo della mostra a cura di S.Susinno
Roma, 1982

Susinno 1990
La pittura a Roma nella prima metà dell’Ottocento
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Susinno 2000
Guy Head, scheda in Æqua potestas. Le arti in gara a Roma nel Settecento
catalogo della mostra a cura di A.Cipriani
Roma, 2000 – pp.42-43

Thieme-Becker 1936
U. Thieme-F. Becker
Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler, vol. XXX
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Tinterow-Conisbee 1999
Portraits by Ingres. Image of an Epoch
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New York, 1999

Tintori 1966
Francesco Belluomini, in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol.VIII
Roma, 1966 – pp.5-6

Träger 1996
S. Träger
Carl Ludwig Frommel
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Trenta 1822
Notizie di pittori, scultori e architetti lucchesi per servire alla storia delle belle arti ne’ secoli XVII, e XVIII
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Valentiner 1992
Scenebilleder: Wilhelm Marstrand
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Valentiner 1992(2)
Wilhelm Marstrand
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Nivå, 1992

Vedder 1979
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Vigne 1995
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Paris, 1995

Vogel 1925
Otto Greiner
Bielefeld-Leipzig, 1925

Vollmer 1939
Johann Friedrich August Tischebein
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Zucchi 1998
La Memoria delle pitture di Angelica Kauffmann
a cura di C.Knight
Roma-Londra, 1998